Charismatic Movement and Baptists (1)
In this paper, I will consider the impact that the charismatic movement has had on Scottish Baptist churches, and see what lessons can be learned for the future. I will focus especially in the way(s) that any coming move of God may be handled by the churches of the denomination and the denominational leadership itself. I will look at the beginnings of the charismatic movement in Scotland, and review briefly the impact of other factors such as ecumenism, John Wimber, Spring Harvest, the Toronto blessing, and Restorationism. I will consider what the charismatic movement actually was and how it should be viewed today, before drawing to a conclusion in which I consider the key areas in which I believe we should plan for the future.
THE SPREADING FIRE
The charismatic movement has, in one way or another, touched Baptist churches across the whole of Scotland; some tried to embrace it, some tried to ignore it, and some tried to defeat it. Along with the genuine movement of the Spirit of God, there were some undoubted excesses, but some Baptists’ responses to the movement likewise produced some excesses, though many recognised that God was at work. The charismatic movement is today often surrounded by much hype, hysteria and myth; but it began very quietly.
One minister in Motherwell in the early sixties embraced it without realising what was happening to him, and the fever of interest was not long in gripping Baptists, or the media. In 1962, the Glasgow Sunday Mail and Scottish Daily Express announced with great passion that “a veil of secrecy was clamped down on a Scots church last night after a mysterious new form of worship bordering on the supernatural is being practised.” Newspapers today have long lost an interest in such stories; how times have changed.
The report centred around Brian Casebow, minister of the parish church of St Margaret’s in Netherton, Motherwell, who, while praying one Sunday night, suddenly found himself praying in tongues. As news of the happening spread, special meetings for prayer and for healing were held, and Casebow was invited to speak at the Local Lanarkshire Baptist association fraternal. Following this, he was soon requesting the use of local Baptist churches for baptisms by total immersion. A fuller account can be found in McBain’s book, Fire Over The Waters. Baptists were understandably concerned that an ‘outsider’ was making far greater use of Baptist church tanks than they were! The fire was lit.
McBain said that “It is true to say that Motherwell became a focus for charismatic activity”, and several American visitors came to Motherwell in the course of their visits. Word spread, the fire spread, and the charismatic movement was beginning its journey across Scotland. Central Scotland saw considerable growth in the charismatic movement, though developments elsewhere in Scotland were slower. Nevertheless, what had been set in motion in Lanarkshire would touch the nation.
“The greatest single influence on doctrine, practice and behaviour in Scottish Baptist churches over the last decade [70s] or so, however, has been the charismatic renewal movement, particularly with its impact on public worship,” said Balfour. There are very few Scottish Baptist churches whose forms of worship have not been affected by the charismatic movement, whether they were aware of it or not.
Something was certainly needed to combat the decline that was being experienced by the churches, and Scottish Baptists, though by no means alone in their experience of decline, were looking for an answer to it. According to Wright, one key ingredient to combat church decline was renewal – the receiving of new energy from the Spirit of God “who uses the word of God to reveal the emptiness of our present service, because “without spiritual renewal we have nothing to give.” Was the charismatic renewal movement of the 1960s onwards a spiritual renewal that would allow Baptists to have something to give? Perhaps more importantly, would it halt the decline amongst Scottish Baptist churches?
McBain contends that the charismatic movement has, in the course of three decades, “grown into a distinctive and influential element colouring a large section of the life of the Baptist denomination whether or not particular churches have been actively involved in it.” For all its excesses, the charismatic movement brought new life to many Baptists, a fact that should not be forgotten. As Balfour stated, “The influence of the charismatic movement is by no means confined to those churches which have consciously taken a particular stance – its vitality has benefited congregations which would not describe themselves as such.”
The charismatic movement certainly affected and impacted many Christians across every denomination, and perhaps this was a contributory factor in the continued rise of ecumenism which was further emphasised by Balfour called the ‘trans-denominational’ charismatic movement. While not welcomed by every Christian, Baptists in particular were taking the opportunity to dialogue with other Christians of different denominations; though this dialogue was, in itself, not free from controversy, as Balfour points out.
The rise in popularity of John Wimber and his ‘signs and wonders’ ministry boosted the popularity of the charismatic movement, and, for a while, provided it with some welcome authenticity; people were becoming Christians in large numbers as a result of Wimber’s ministry, and this was surely something every Christian could rejoice in. And they did. For a little while.
The charismatically-based, though carefully-presented, Spring Harvest events also became very popular and carried the charismatic movement into some areas and churches that had not been very involved before. Forms of worship were renewed as a result and new songs and new musical instruments were introduced into Scottish Baptist churches. In many of them the organ fell from grace and took the acoustic piano with it – guitars, keyboards and even drums were used in the context of praise and worship. Baptist hymn books were replaced by Mission Praise and other song books, and recordings of the Spring Harvest events introduced new songs to a wider audience.
The Toronto blessing spread its way into Scotland as a number of Baptists, among many others, made the trip (pilgrimage?) to Canada to see what all the fuss was about. What came back certainly caused a fuss, as some of the more bizarre aspects of the blessing were manifested in Baptist churches that weren’t even ready for the ordinary manifestations. The Spirit of God was surely in there somewhere, but it was the excesses that grabbed the attention and the headlines, and these excesses were used to justify a refusal to endorse in any way the possibility that God might be at work in Toronto and beyond. Some even attributed it all to the devil.
In the early 1970s, Restorationists were convinced that all other denominations (except their own, though they maintained that they were not a denomination) were finished, and that all Christians would naturally move over to their new churches, which were house churches. Hollenweger asserted that “the House Church movement is the result of a failed attempt at reviving the existing churches and thus will become – not immediately, but in time – another denomination”.
Surely the non-denomination did indeed become a denomination that, while charismatic, was in grave danger of becoming a sect that was governed by teams of elders who acted with authority but without reference to the church membership itself, who in turn submitted to apostolic leaders outside the church that gave oversight to the leaders and the fellowship. That many Baptist churches adopted house groups as a normal part of church life only ensured that “the challenge of restorationism has remained a far stronger threat to the vitality of the Baptist Union than the message of renewal ever was” according to McBain.
In all of this, it was difficult to tell exactly where the charismatic movement began and ended. If, indeed, it has actually ended. Were some of these things part of the charismatic movement, on the fringes of it, or simply working alongside it? In any event the fire spread across Scottish Baptist churches, and many responded by stocking up on fire extinguishers. Were all these things merely brief manifestations of emotion or lasting works of God? How was the charismatic movement to be seen, understood, and received? Ultimately, how is it to be remembered in Christian history?